Helping Adults With Mathematical Learning Difficulties

This week’s guest post from educator Sarah Jarvis covers a topic on which it can be difficult to find in-depth information: adult math learning difficulties. We are very pleased to feature Jarvis’s informative article on the Dyscalculia Blog!

There are many reasons adults have difficulties with maths
There are many reasons adults have difficulties with maths. Photo credit: attercop311 via Visual hunt / CC BY

I have worked at Bracknell and Wokingham College in the Learning Support Department for 8 years, supporting those aged over 16 who have maths learning difficulties.  I also taught GCSE and Functional Skills adult maths classes for a number of years.

The reasons that learners leave school at 16 or older without the requisite ‘C’ grade at maths can be numerous.  It is only by understanding the roots of the difficulties, as well as the person’s strengths, that it is possible to assist them to overcome their difficulties.  Assessment is therefore an extremely important part of my job.

The reasons adults may have difficulties with maths include the following:

  • Poor schooling. This can result in creating misconceptions which become more embedded as the person gets older and are therefore harder to unearth and resolve.
  • Poor attendance at school due to health or other reasons. For example if a student happens to be away when division is covered then it can be very difficult to catch up and then understand fractions.
  • Maths Anxiety. Maths anxiety is a very real phenomenon and adults, in particular, can have severe anxiety about maths, coupled with very low self-esteem, making it difficult for them to even try for fear of failing.
  • Language difficulties. It isn’t just adults who speak English as a second language that can find difficulties with the maths language.  Many people can struggle with what to do in a ‘wordy’ problem even though their arithmetic might be good.  Specific teaching in which operation to use when is imperative.
  • Poor motivation. For example: “why do I need maths when I’m studying Performing Arts?”  If the motivation to learn maths is absent then any learning can be very difficult.
  • Fixed mindset. Some adults believe that they “can’t do maths”.  However, there is no maths gene.  It is a skill like any other that with practice can be acquired.
  • Dyslexia or other difficulties.  Difficulties with maths often occur alongside other difficulties such as dyslexia or autism.
  • Weak memory. Short term and working memory affect the ability with mental arithmetic and long term memory is needed to remember maths facts and procedures.  Any difficulties in these areas will affect an adult’s ability with maths.
  • Cognitive or thinking style. A mismatch between a  tutor’s and adult’s thinking style can affect learning.  Some adults may be able to estimate and get to an answer without knowing how they got there, whilst others may use a sequential, step by step, ‘inchworm’ approach and be unable to estimate.
  • Visual stress difficulties. Adults may have difficulties with ‘seeing’ or writing numbers due to visual stress.  I had a very interesting student who had no problems with wordy maths problems but when faced with numbers on their own she struggled to read them.  She also wrote some numbers in their mirror image.  After discussions and diagnostic tests we found that a coloured overlay completely cured her ‘supposed’ maths difficulties.

I haven’t yet mentioned dyscalculia.  There are many reasons adults have difficulties with maths and having dyscalculia is only one potential reason.  Adults who might be considered dyscalculic will have very limited number sense, which is generally thought of as the ability to understand and manipulate quantities.  For example they will struggle with understanding basic numerical concepts, will use immature methods, will struggle to retain facts and won’t know whether an answer makes sense.  This is particularly difficult when out shopping and knowing whether they have the right change, for example.

Adults who might be considered dyscalculic will have very limited number sense, which is generally thought of as the ability to understand and manipulate quantities.
Adults who might be considered dyscalculic will have very limited number sense, which is generally thought of as the ability to understand and manipulate quantities.

Dyscalculia research and diagnosis is still in its infancy and when the adults I see were at school it is likely that the school would not have even heard about dyscalculia.  There is also no formal, agreed diagnosis for dyscalculia in adults yet.

However, for the vast majority of the adults I see a diagnosis is not important.  What these adults need is to build their confidence in maths in whatever way they can.  I have seen people whose school told them that they can do nothing more for them with maths.  Imagine how this makes them feel?  One adult was a very talented photographer and I worked with her on visual representations of numbers using dominoes.  Passing her first ever maths exam was a huge milestone for this student.

Another adult I saw struggled with directions and couldn’t go anywhere new on her own.  She could not remember her pin number and always bought the wrong size clothes for her children.  I worked with her on ways to remember her pin, by visualising a pattern on the keypad for example.

Adults differ from children by having more concrete experiences to draw on.  By utilising these experiences and making maths relevant to them, adults are able to make more sense of a concept.  Ultimately adults need to be supported in their maths so that they can become independent, prepared for and supported in the workplace.  In my experience, teaching adults which operation to use when and how to use the calculator on their phone successfully is much more useful than, for example, being able to do column subtraction.

Connections should be built between the symbols, language, mathematical image and particularly the context of any concept.  Although this connective approach originated for primary level children it can be applied extremely successfully with adults who seem able to grasp concepts that may have been difficult for them in the past, particularly when coupled with a context that means something to them.  Different people may need a different set of resources to represent the same concept depending on their specific strengths and weaknesses.  I have found that the use of manipulatives such as base 10 blocks, beads and even Numicon can work extremely successfully with adults.

One of the most important maths skills that adults need in work and life is estimation.  Therefore this should be a key skill practised.  Exact answers can always be found later with a calculator.

Finally I would recommend the following when working with adults who have maths difficulties:

  • Assess where the strengths and difficulties lie and always work from areas of strength.
  • Always use a context that the adult can relate to and combine this with maths language, symbols and an image or manipulatives to embed the concept.
  • Encourage a Growth Mindset i.e. “I will be able to do it with practise”.
  • Welcome mistakes. As Jo Boaler says, when you make a mistake your brain grows.
  • Encourage and practise estimating and flexible thinking skills.
  • Give praise and encouragement for trying.

sarah-jarvisSarah Jarvis has worked at Bracknell & Wokingham Further Education College for 8 years as a qualified maths lecturer.  She taught adults Functional Skills maths from Entry level to Level 2 for 5 years and has also taught maths GCSE for learners aged 16+.  She has an Advanced Diploma in Overcoming Barriers to Learning Maths and is currently providing maths support for learners, aged 16+, who find maths particularly challenging.  Sarah presented a session entitled “Meeting the Challenge of Adult learners” at The National Conference for Dyscalculia and Maths Learning Difficulties in 2015.  She has also presented sessions on “Maths learning difficulties and Dyscalculia” to the West Berkshire Dyslexia Association and a local PATOSS group.

Prior to attaining qualified teacher status she worked for 15 years in the Project Management software industry where her passion for teaching and supporting adults led her through various Consultancy roles to become Education and Training Manager.

Connect with Sarah Jarvis in the comments below or on her Twitter page.

17 thoughts on “Helping Adults With Mathematical Learning Difficulties

  • February 18, 2017 at 5:34 am

    Thank you Sarah Jarvis for a wonderful article. I am 58 years old and struggle with Math. I am working on a Bachelors degree in Business Administration now and have a difficult time understanding the concepts of Algebra. I have always had difficulty, even as a child. I teach in Early Childhood, and I know how important those manipulatives are for a child to learn. As a child I didn’t have those stepping stones and believe that that is part of the puzzle.

    Debbie Ingles

  • May 17, 2017 at 8:00 pm

    Sarah, do you have any experience using Calcularis with adults?

  • May 19, 2017 at 6:23 pm

    Also, do you know of any research that has been done with teens or adults?

    • May 28, 2017 at 6:59 pm

      Hi Lydia,

      Apologies for the slow response!
      We have some experience using Calcularis with young adults.
      As you probably will expect: in fact, it may be beneficial for adults, if they missed having learnt the real basic skills in maths before.

      On the other hand, I don’t know anything about research / results about dyscalculia treatment with teenagers or adults. I don’t think that there is anything really helpful from this side…
      –> One of the most important preconditions for the successful use with Calcularis and with Orthograph is the learner’s motivation. This might often be a significant problem when dealing with teenagers handicaps, of course.

      I hope this answer is of help.

      All the best

    • October 16, 2019 at 4:58 pm

      I too have struggled with math. My whole life actually. I’ve searched the web for hours trying to find help with Visual spatial learning for adults. Not sure, but I believe this is my learning issue. Everything I’ve found on it refers to children, not adults. I just need to find someone in my area to get help with this. Do you, or any of your followers, have any information on resources?

      • October 17, 2019 at 9:13 am

        Hi Leslie, I would recommend joining our Dyscalculia Support Group on Facebook if you can as it’s full of professionals, teachers, parents and adults with dyscalculia who are full of amazing tips on how they have approached their dyscalculia and will be able to help you with visual-spatial learning for adults. 🙂

  • November 26, 2017 at 5:32 am

    I would be very grateful if anybody could tell me where I could get a dyscalculia diagnosis for reduced rate. I’m currently on Jobseeker’s Allowance so I’m low on funds. I’ve struggled with math all 37 years of my life and would just like to find out once and for all. I’d be grateful for any info.

    • November 26, 2017 at 6:56 pm

      Hi Ezra,

      As far as I understand it depends on your individual situation as to whether you can get a reduction on a full diagnosis. The best thing to do is to get in touch with the Disability Employment Advisor (DEA) at your local Job Centre. The DEA can tell you about support or assistance that is available. The DEA may also refer you to a Chartered Occupational Psychologist for an assessment.

      I hope this helps and please tell me how it goes!

      All the best,

  • September 28, 2018 at 11:08 am

    Hi Sarah,

    I read your article above with interest. My son, Myles, would like to either go to University or take and Apprenticeship in IT. Has all the qualifications he needs except Maths. So has not been accepted. He has taken this 5 times and it now trying to do his functional skills in Mathematics AGAIN. I admire him for keeping trying but he needs some help. He is 21 years of age. He seems to have a block on Mathematics and I was wondering if possibly he has Dyscalculia.

    We live in Epsom, are there any tutors that you are aware of that can help him with regards to this issue.

    We are desperate!

    Thank you.


    • October 7, 2018 at 12:58 pm

      Hi Angela,

      I feel for Myles. It must be really hard having this barrier blocking his chosen path. When you say he has a block on mathematics, are there particular areas that he finds more difficult than others? How is he with algebra for example? Also how close is he to passing? I presume he’s tried GCSE and functional skills. I live near Bracknell so not close enough to help I’m afraid. Have you tried the local Further Education college and explained Myles’ difficulties? Sometimes it’s possible to get on an Apprentice course and still study for the Maths FS qualification at the same time. Some IT courses require some high level Maths so he may need to double check the content of different courses. You can email me at if you’d like to discuss further and I’ll have a look to see if there are any tutors nearer your area.

      Best wishes, Sarah

    • April 19, 2019 at 9:48 am

      I too, have problems with maths.
      I was asked to train as a store supervisor, which i didn’t want ( because it will involve maths)
      Anyway, started to train up, which involved computers, numbers & cashing up, which i take long to learn.
      I recieved a phone call from a work collegue who told me that, the assistant manager & team leaders where saying i was too slow & take long to count money.
      (Which i know they are right.) I wasn’t surprised, they have urgency to train up people & expect them to learn in a week.
      I just have that anxiety steaming from school, where the teachers would not help me or even allow me to take GCSE maths, which i was pulled out of last minute.
      I just decided to give up.
      I CAN’T DO MATHS!!!!!

  • November 30, 2018 at 9:31 pm

    Hi Sara,
    I am 48 soon to be 49, I have been fortunate in my life to have been successful in terms of employment until 2013. I was injured on the job and declared physically disabled and have had to undergo surgery to correct the issues, unfortunately this means that I can not return to my former work and with out a GED or Diploma I am really lost. I have always been terrible at math and I am worried that I can’t learn it to pass the test. I am struggling with this and more so now than ever. I have debt up the you know what I have exhausted all my savings and really need to get the skills to find a new line of work. I wish I understood how to follow along but its like my brain just cant grasp it. In school I was in Special education for math but soon lost interest because I was not being challenged and eventually dropped out of school. I was not lazy I entered into work and received a few promotions and was quite the dedicated employee I worked endless hours and felt fortunate for my abilities and because of my work I strayed away from school. I now regret this choice because I now am in desperate need. I looked on line for adult schools near me and none are near by. I am afraid I cant afford a private learning program and or tutor and I find that I am limited in my abilities to find ample employment, the ones that are available are generally physical in nature or money handling and lets face it I am horrible on a cashier I was an assistant manager at Blockbuster for a year and struggled with the machines and end of day procedures. I barely managed to do my job and I don’t know how I got through it as long as I did. I am not stupid and I believe with the right help I can learn. I just don’t know where or what I should look for. I live in Palm Springs, CA and they closed down the adult school near me in 2014 and its very unfortunate indeed. I have lived here for 5 years and I see that the need is here but there are no resources available. If you have any suggestions I would surely welcome it.


    Leah M

    • December 1, 2018 at 9:05 pm

      Hi Leah,
      Thank you for your comment 🙂
      Please do not give up hope! There are people that care and can help you in our Dyscalculia Support Group on Facebook (click here). They are people like you who have struggled with maths all their lives and can offer practical advice and support, some of them are now professionals that work with maths and dyscalculia, so even more help!

      There may be a few people close to where you live that may be able to offer more local advice too.

      I hope this helps 🙂

  • February 18, 2019 at 6:48 pm

    I know this is like a few years old but I myself am hoping to do something involving gaming or writing, would love to do both in one job honestly but yeah. Ever since I was a kid I struggled at math, and I’ve always been stuck at the start with the basics because of not being given the classes I needed when I needed them. Im 30 and Im pretty much about to flunk my beginning algebra course, can I get some tips, help, ect to help me out? Everyone has been telling me to do problems and I know that. But its not that simple. You gotta know what you’re doing to do them correct? But I tend to line up problems wrong due to hand issues, or get the steps right but get the wrong answer or vice versa. I seriously need some help here.

    • February 19, 2019 at 7:32 pm

      Hi Kevin,

      Thank you for your comment 🙂
      I think you should join our Dyscalculia Support Group on Facebook if you can, its full of people that have struggled with dyscalculia and maths anxiety and professionals, their experience could be a great resource for you to find the support you need.

      Also please do look through our blog and if you have any questions, you can contact us on here or through the facebook support group.

  • November 21, 2019 at 2:01 pm

    What happened to the blog?

    • November 25, 2019 at 10:42 am

      Hi Thara,

      Thank you for your concern. Unfortunatley I still havent found the time to dedicate to the blog, but hopefully we will be back soon 🙂


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